Cancer Types & Treatment 癌種類和治療

breast cancer
Breast Cancer
According to the National Cancer Institute (NCI), it is estimated that approximately 192,000 women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year in the United States. Incidence rate is 156 to every 100,000.

Breast cancer treatment may include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: Typically, surgery is the most common form of treatment. Depending on where the cancer is located and it’s size it is doctors may decide to perform one of two types of surgeries on the breast. The first, a lumpectomy or partial mastectomy will only remove the area of the breast that is affected by the cancer. The second, mastectomy, the surgeon removes the entire breast. During each of these two types, the surgeon will likely remove some lymph nodes under the arms in order to check to see if the cancer has spread from the breast.
- Radiation: Usually given after surgery, radiation therapy is the use of high energy rays to kill the breast cancer cells. It can be given externally, or internally, where the radiation is placed in a small tube and inserted into the breast through a tiny incision.
- Hormone Therapy: Tests are typically performed on this tissue to determine whether the tumor is hormone receptor positive or negative. If it is positive,  the cancer cell relies on the hormones estrogen and progesterone to grow. Hormone therapy is used in those breast cancers that are hormone receptor positive because it blocks the cancer cells from using these hormones.
- Chemotherapy: Given intravenously and by pill, chemotherapy works to kill the rapidly dividing cancer cells. Chemotherapy is not selective to killing just the cancer cells, but also depletes other fast-growing cells in the body, which causes several debilitating side effects including liver, renal, and hematological toxicity.
- Targeted Therapy: Certain genes or proteins stimulate the growth of certain cancers. Such as, a protein called HER-2 stimulates the growth of certain breast cancers. There are two targeted therapies available to treat breast cancer in patients whose tumors with the positive HER-2 protein.


Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is the number one cause of cancer-related death in men. In 2010 alone, an estimated 220,000 new cases of lung cancer will be diagnosed and 157,000 men and women will die from the disease. Smoking is still the leading cause of lung cancer. The most common form is called non-small cell lung cancer, which accounts for about 85 percent of all cases. The remaining cases are classified as small cell lung cancer, which tend to grow more quickly.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: 1) The most common lung cancer surgery is a lobectomy, where a surgeon removes the tumor as well as a lobe of the lung. 2) A segmentectomy or wedge resection is a surgery where the tumor along with a small amount of the lung that surrounded the tumor is removed. 3) If the entire lung is removed, the surgery is called pneumonectomy.
- Radiation: External radiation is most commonly used. Internal radiation is rarely used.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is not selective in destroying just the cancerous cells, it can cause some severe and debilitating side effect such as anemia, liver, renal and hematological toxicity.

colon
Colon Cancer
Approximately more than 102,000 new cases of colon cancer are diagnosed this year. The longest part of the large intestine, the colon is responsible for removing water and nutrients from digested food and turning it into stool, which is then passed to the rectum and eventually leaves the body through the anus. Colon cancer treatment depends on the location of the tumor as well as how advanced the cancer is when it is diagnosed.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: The most common colon cancer treatment. The three forms are 1) Colonoscopy: A flexible tube that is inserted in the colon to remove small tumors; 2) Laparoscopy: to remove the tumor and area around it; and, 3) Open Surgery: Segmental colon resection to remove the cancer as well as some of the healthy surrounding area.
- Radiation: The use of high energy rays to destroy cancer cells, is rarely used for the colon cancer treatment. It can be used to help to alleviate pain and other symptoms.
- Chemotherapy: Given intravenously and by pill, chemotherapy can kill the cancer cells. Chemotherapy is not selective in killing just the tumor itself, but also depletes other fast-growing cells in the body, which may cause several debilitating side effects such as liver, renal and hematological toxicity.
- Biological Therapy: Colon cancer can be treated with a monoclonal antibody, which is a form of biological therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are specially designed to bind to specific proteins that are found on the surface of colon cancer cells in order to destroy them. These types of therapies are given intravenously and orally.
ovaries
Ovarian Cancer
Ovarian cancer treatment is the second most common form of gynecological cancer with an estimated 21,800 new cases expected to be diagnosed in 2010. The ovaries are responsible for producing two female hormones (estrogen and progesterone) and releasing eggs into the fallopian tubes for pregnancy. Ovarian cancer treatment depends largely on the stage of the cancer at diagnoses. Treatment decision should take place through communication between both the oncologist and patient.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: Laparotomy, is to remove both ovaries, the fallopian tubes, the uterus, the omentum (which is the thin, fatty tissue that covers the intestines), and lymph nodes. During the surgery, nearby lymph nodes also will be removed and tested to determine whether or not the ovarian cancer has spread to other parts of the body. Some women who are diagnosed with stage-I ovarian cancer and still want to preserve child bearing function after may opt to have only one ovary or fallopian tube removed in hopes of still being able to become pregnant.
- Chemotherapy: Most women are treated with a combination of chemotherapies after ovarian cancer surgery typically are given a pill, or by an IV.
- Radiation: Radiation therapy is rarely used for initial ovarian cancer treatment. However, at times radiation therapy is used to relieve pain associated with ovarian cancer but side effects are severe such as diarrheas, bowel adhesions, anemia and bowel perforation.

cerival
Cervical Cancer
It is estimated that there is 11,000 new cases of cervical cancer diagnosed in women the year of 2010. Part of a woman’s reproductive system, the cervix is inside the uterus. Cervical cancer can be easily detected through regular Pap smears that women typically are given during an annual gynecological exam. Most cases of cervical cancer result from the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, which is transmitted through sexual intercourse. Now, cervical cancer can be prevented through the use of two new vaccines approved to prevent HPV infections that cause cervical cancer.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:<
- Surgery: There are three types of surgery for women with stage I or II cervical cancer: 1) Radical trachelectomy, where the cervix, part of the vagina and surrounding lymph nodes are removed; 2) Total hysterectomy, where the cervix and uterus are removed; and, 3) Radical hysterectomy, where the cervix, the uterus, and a part of the vagina are removed. During a total or radical hysterectomy surgery, the fallopian tubes and ovaries also may be removed.
- Radiation: If cervical cancer is diagnosed in the early stages, radiation therapy, to kill cancer cells, may be given instead of surgery. Radiation therapy also can be used following surgery to destroy any cancer cells left remaining in the surrounding area.
- Chemotherapy: When cervical cancer has spread beyond the cervix, chemotherapy may be used alone or along with radiation therapy but there are severe side effects.

endometrial
Endometrial Cancer Treatment
Endometrial Cancer are cancer that start in the endometrium. In the uterus of a woman, there are two layers of tissue: the endometrium, is the inner lining the myometrium, is the outer layer of muscle. Endometrial cancer is a cancer that starts in the endometrium, or inner lining of the uterus. It is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system, an estimated 43,000 new cases each year. Endometrial cancer is considered an older woman’s cancer because it rarely is seen in women under the age of 40, the mean age of uterine cancer is 62 years old.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: A hysterectomy is usually performed, along with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. A radical hysterectomy, which includes the removal of the uterus, cervix, tissues surrounding the cervix and the upper part of the vagina and lymph nodes, also may be performed if the endometrial cancer has spread to the cervix.
- Radiation: Therapy is given either externally or internally, and is may be given before surgery to try to shrink the tumor or after surgery to kill any remaining cancer cells. It also may be recommended as a first-line treatment for women who can not undergo surgery for one reason or another.
- Chemotherapy: A combination of two or more chemotherapeutic agents typically are used to treat endometrial cancer. The most commonly used therapies include carboplatin, cisplatin, doxorubicin and paclitaxel.
- Hormone Therapy: This is a common treatment option. The main types of hormone treatments used are called progestins, which use the female hormone progestin to slow the growth of the cancerous cells. The breast cancer drug, tamoxifen, also is used to stop the role that estrogen plays in encouraging the growth of cancer cells. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH) agonists can be used.

valvar
Vulvar Cancer
The vulva consists of the opening of the vagina, the clitoris and the outer and inner lips. Typically, most cancers of the vulva are found on the outer lips and are rarely found in the other areas of the vulva. There are approximately 3,500 cancers of the vulva each year. It is a relatively rare cancer of the female reproductive system.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Laser: Lasers kill and destroy the cancerous tissue on the vulva. This is used mainly to treat early-stage cancers of the vulva.
- Topical: For early stage cancers, imiquimod may be applied topically as a cream or lotion, directly onto the vulvar cancer rather than given systemically.
- Surgery: The most common treatment for vulvar cancer is surgery. Depending on the stage and location of the cancer. A wide local excision takes place where just the tumor and some surrounding tissue of the vulva are removed. If part of the groin lymph nodesis also removed, this procedure is referred to as a radical local excision. Additionally, several degrees of a vulvectomy may be performed: 1) skinning vulvectomy- only the top skin layer of the vulva is removed; 2) simple vulvectomy- the whole vulva is removed; 3) modified radical vulvectomy- only the part of the vulva that houses the tumor is removed along with some surrounding area; 4) radical vulvectomy- the whole vulva including the clitoris and surrounding lymph nodes are removed
- Radiation: Radiation therapy may be given externally to treat vulvar cancer. Sometimes radiation therapy is given along with chemotherapy before surgery to try to reduce the size of tumors diagnosed at a more advanced stage.
- Chemotherapy: It is not clear how effective the use of chemotherapy is in treating cancers of the vulva. However, when it is used, it typically is given in combination with radiation therapy to try to shrink the size of the tumor before surgery.

vaginal
Vaginal Cancer

Cancer of the vagina is a rare cancer of the female reproductive system. It is estimated that only 2,100 new cases of vaginal cancer will be diagnosed this year. Vaginal cancer different from other female genital cancers. The vagina is the area from the lower part of the cervix that extends to the vulva, which are the external female genitals. Additionally, a cancer that affects both the cervix and the vagina is considered cervical cancer, while a cancer that involves both the vulva and the vagina is considered vulvar cancer.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Laser: A high energy light is used as laser therapy to destroy the cancerous tissue on the vagina. This is used mainly to treat early-stage vaginal cancer and is not typically a treatment for more advanced cancers.
- Topical: For early stage cancers only, medications such as chemotherapy or imiquimod may be applied topically, directly onto the cancer rather than given systemically.
- Radiation: Radiation therapy is given either externally or internally, and is sometimes given at the same time as chemotherapy to shrink tumors prior to having surgery.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is used to treat more advanced stages of vaginal cancer, but at times is given in combination with radiation therapy to shrink tumors prior to surgical removal.
- Surgery: Typically reserved for larger tumors, or those tumors that have not responded to radiation or chemotherapy, several different types of surgery may be performed. Local excision takes place when the tumor is removed along with a small amount of surrounding normal tissue. Partial or total vaginectomy occurs when part or all of the vagina, respectively, is removed. If the vaginal cancer is located at the top part of the vagina, the cervix also may be removed, this is called a trachelectomy. For more advanced vaginal cancers that have spread to both the uterus and cervix, a hysterectomy is typically performed.

pancreatic
Pancreatic Cancer
There are approximately 43,000 new cases of pancreatic cancer are anticipated to be diagnosed this year. A gland found near the stomach secretes insulin and other hormones, the pancreas helps the body use and store energy that is created from food. The pancreas also makes different types of enzymes to digest food. Pancreatic cancer is very hard to treat with currently available therapies. However, several pancreatic cancer treatment options can be used alone or in combination with one another to help control the cancer, including:

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: The extent of surgery depends largely on the size of the tumor and where it is located on the pancreas. 1) A whipple procedure is used if the cancer is located on the widest part of the pancreas, also called the head. During this procedure, the surgeon removes this portion of the pancreas as well as part of the small intestine and stomach. 2) A distal pancreatectomy is performed when the tumor is located on the body and tail portions of the pancreas. The spleen is also removed during this type of surgery. 3) The final type of surgery that can be performed to treat pancreatic cancer is a total pancreatectomy, where the entire pancreas is removed as well as part of the stomach and small intestine, the spleen, the gallbladder and surrounding lymph nodes.
- Radiation: which uses high energy rays to kill the cancer cells, may be used after surgery to try to get rid of any cancerous cells that may remain in the area following surgery.
- Chemotherapy: Several different forms of chemotherapy, can be used pancreatic cancer treatment and is may be given alone, or following surgery and radiation therapy.

colorectal
Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer is the cancer of the large intestine, divided into two sections: the colon, is the first four to five feet of the large intestine, and the rectum, consists of the last several inches. The colon is responsible for removing water and nutrients from digested food and turning it into stool, which is then passed to the rectum and eventually leaves the body through the anus. Cancer that starts in either the colon or rectum can be referred to as colorectal cancer or as colon or rectal cancer separately. It is estimated that there will be 141,000 new cases of colorectal cancer (102,000 colon and 39,000 rectal) diagnosed this year.

Treatment largely depends on whether the cancer starts in the colon or the rectum, but typically consists of one or more of the following:
- Surgery: The most common colorectal cancer treatment is surgery, which can be performed by one of three methods: a colonoscopy, which uses a flexible tube that is inserted in the colon or rectum to remove small tumors; a laparoscopy, which uses a thin, lighted tube that is inserted through the abdomen to remove the tumor and area around it; and, open surgery, where a surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to remove the cancer as well as some of the healthy surrounding area.
- Radiation: Radiation the use of high energy rays to destroy cancer cells, is rarely used for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancers that have spread to other parts of the body, but it can be given in combination with chemotherapy before or after surgery. Additionally, radiation can be used to help to alleviate pain and other symptoms associated with colorectal cancer.
- Chemotherapy: Given intravenously and by pill, chemotherapy works to kill the fast-growing cancer cells. Agents such as 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, irinotecan, leucovorin and oxaliplatin are five most commonly used agents to treat colorectal cancer, and can be used alone or in combination with one another.
- Monoclonal Antibodies/Targeted Therapy: Monoclonal antibodies are designed to bind to specific proteins that are found on the surface of colorectal cancer cells in order to destroy them. Avastin, Erbitux and Vectibix are three monoclonal antibodies that can be used in combination with chemotherapy or after chemotherapy has stopped working for colorectal cancer treatment.


Bladder Cancer
Men are two to three times more likely to develop bladder cancer than women. It is estimated that every year approximately 38,000 new cases of bladder cancer are diagnosed in men and 15,000 in women, making bladder cancer the fourth most common cancer in men and the eighth most common in women. The bladder is a hollow organ that stores urine, the liquid waste that is produced by the kidneys. Bladder cancer treatment depends on: 1) the particular type of bladder cancer (transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma or superficial/carcinoma in situ), 2) the grade of the tumor (which indicates how closely the tumor resembles normal noncancerous cells), and 3) the particular stage of growth the cancer has reached upon diagnosis.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: A common bladder cancer treatment, a surgeon can perform one of three different types of procedures. 1) transurethral resection (TUR), is used to treat early-stage or superficial bladder cancer. In this procedure, the surgeon uses a special tool that is placed through the urethra to burn away the bladder cancer with an electrical current. 2) a radical cystectomy, occurs when the surgeon removes the entire bladder, the surrounding lymph nodes, a portion of the urethra and any nearby organs that may also contain cancer cells. For women, these nearby organs include the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and part of the vagina. In men, the vas deferens, seminal vesicles and the prostate are removed. 3) segmental cystectomy – is where the surgeon only removes part of the bladder.
- Radiation: This form of treatment, given externally or internally, uses high energy rays to kill the bladder cancer cells. Sometimes it is given before surgery, other times it is given after surgery.
- Chemotherapy: Depending on the type of bladder cancer, more than one type of chemotherapy can be used. For superficial bladder cancer, the chemotherapy may be inserted directly into the bladder through a catheter. For more aggressive types, chemotherapy typically is given intravenously (through a vein).
- Biological Therapy: Also commonly referred to as immunotherapy, these are drugs that have been designed to work by manipulating the body’s immune system to fight the cancer. This type of therapy is usually given after TUR surgery for superficial bladder cancer in order to try to prevent the cancer from coming back.

small intestine
Small Intestine Cancer
Options for small intestine cancer treatment are important as approximately 6,900 new cases of small intestine cancer will be diagnosed this year, making it a relatively rare form of cancer. The small intestine, located between the stomach and large intestine, is of the body’s digestive process responsible for breaking down food to absorb necessary nutrients. The name of the small intestine is a bit deceiving -- it actually is the largest part of the digestive system, reaching 15 to 20 feet in length. The most common type of cancer is adenocarcinoma, which is a cancer that releases fluids such as mucus. Other types include sarcomas, carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors and lymphomas.

Treatment options depend largely on the location, size and stage of the tumor and can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: Small intestine cancer is most commonly treated with surgery, which can be performed one of two ways.
- Resection: The first type of surgery, called a resection, is a procedure where all or part of the small intestine is removed. If only a section of the small intestine that contains the tumor is removed, the surgeon joins the ends back together. If the cancer has spread to other nearby organs, portions of these organs also may be removed.
- Bypass: This form of surgery takes place when the tumor can not be removed, so a surgeon will perform surgery to allow food to go around, or bypass, the tumor that is blocking the food.
- Radiation: to destroy cancer cells, radiation therapy is usually given externally for small intestine cancer treatment. It can be given before surgery to shrink the tumor or after surgery to try to kill any remaining cancer cells.
- Chemotherapy: For some reason, small intestine cancer does not respond well to the use of chemotherapy. Therefore, chemotherapy is typically only used if the cancer has spread to other organs.

liver
Liver Cancer
Approximately 22,600 new cases of liver cancer are expected to be diagnosed. The liver, which is the largest organ in the abdomen, is a very extremely important organ because it aids in the digestion of food and removes harmful substances from the blood. Alcohol-related cirrhosis and liver disease associated with obesity and diabetes are the main causes of liver cancer. Liver cancer treatment depends largely on the size of the tumor, how well the liver still works if it is affected by cirrhosis and whether or not the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: Surgery where a portion of the liver that houses the tumor is removed, called a partial hepactectomy, or an entire liver transplantation, called a total hepactectomy, are potential treatment options for when liver cancer is diagnosed in the early stages of disease.
- Ablation: A type of treatment that destroys the liver tumor when surgery is not an option, ablation is used in instances where there are only a few small tumors or in those who are waiting to have a liver transplant. Types of ablation include radiofrequency ablation, where electrodes use heat to kill the cancerous liver cells, and percutaneous ethanol injections, where ethanol alcohol is injected directly into the tumor.
Embolization: Another type of treatment that is used when surgery is not an option. A substance is injected into an artery that is then carried to the tumor to block the blood flow necessary for the tumor to grow. Chemotherapy is also sometimes injected during embolization.
Radiotherapy: The use of high energy waves to kill cancerous cells, radiation therapy is an option for those who cannot undergo any type of liver surgery. It also is used to help alleviate pain when the liver cancer has spread to the surrounding bones.
Chemotherapy: Sometimes chemotherapy, the use of high toxic drugs that kill any rapidly dividing cells, is used in liver cancer treatment. Because chemotherapy is not selective in only killing cancer cells, severe and debilitating side effects can occur in some people.
- Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapies new, innovative treatments that have been designed to fight the underlying genetic causes of cancer. Given as a pill, Nexavar is the first targeted therapy approved for the treatment of liver cancer. It is used in people who are unable to undergo surgery or a liver transplant and works by stopping the cancer cells from dividing and blocking the growth of blood vessels needed for the tumor to grow.

rectal
Rectal Cancer
The large intestine is divided into two sections: The rectum, which consists of the last several inches of the large intestine, and the colon, which is the first four to five feet. The colon is responsible for removing water and nutrients from digested food and turning it into stool. Cancer that starts in either the colon or rectum can be referred to as colorectal cancer, or they also can be referred to as colon or rectal cancer separately, depending on where the cancer originates. Colorectal cancers are usually treated based on where the cancer actually starts (i.e., the rectum or colon). It is estimated that there will be 39,000 new cases of rectal cancer diagnosed this year.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: The most common treatment for rectal cancer is surgery, which can be performed by one of four methods: 1) a colonoscopy, which uses a flexible tube that is inserted in the rectum to remove small polyps or tumors. 2) a local excision, which is a procedure that removes the tumor and surrounding areas if the rectal cancer is only on the inside surface of the rectum and has not yet spread to the rectum wall. 3) a resection, which is a surgery that takes occurs when the cancer has spread to the rectum wall. 4) a pelvic extenteration, which occurs when the rectal cancer has spread to other nearby organs that also need to be removed. In women, this could include the bladder, cervix, colon, ovaries or vagina. For men, the prostate may be removed in addition to the colon and bladder.
- Radiation: the use of high energy rays to destroy cancer cells, can be given before or after surgery. Sometimes it is also given in combination with chemotherapy. Additionally, radiation can be used to help to alleviate pain and other symptoms associated with rectal cancer that has spread to other parts of the body.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapies such as 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine, irinotecan, leucovorin and oxaliplatin are commonly used to treat rectal cancer. These drugs can be used alone, in combination with one another, and/or in combination with radiation therapy.
- Monoclonal Antibodies: Rectal cancer also can be treated with a specially designed treatment called a monoclonal antibody, which also referred to as a targeted therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are designed to bind to specific proteins that are found on the surface of rectal cancer cells in order to kill and destroy them. Avastin, Erbitux and Vectibix are three monoclonal antibodies that can be used in combination with chemotherapy or after chemotherapy has stopped working to treat rectal cancer.

gallbladder
Gallbladder Cancer
A small pear-shaped organ that is responsible for storing bile, a fluid made in the liver that helps the body digest the fat from food that moves through the small intestine during the digestive process. Since the liver also can release bile, the gallbladder is not an essential organ and many people have it removed due to the development of gallstones. It is estimated that about 9,700 new cases of gallbladder cancer will be detected this year. Unfortunately, most gallbladder cancers are not discovered until they have become more advanced and spread beyond the gallbladder itself.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
Surgery: There are two types of surgery that can be performed to treat gallbladder cancer. 1) A simple cholecystectomy, is where the entire gallbladder is removed. This type of surgery can be completed as a laparoscopic or open surgery. If the cancer that was removed is in the early-stage of development, no further surgery may be necessary. 2) Extended (or radical) cholecystectomy if it has spread outside of the gallbladder. In this procedure, the gallbladder, portion of the liver, surrounding lymph nodes, the common bile duct and the pancreas may also be removed. If the cancer has spread to other organs, portions of these organs also may be removed.
Radiation: To treat gallbladder cancer, radiation therapy may be given for one of three reasons. First, it may be used after surgery to try to kill any gallbladder cancer cells left behind. Secondly, it may be given instead of surgery in patients who cannot tolerate surgery to remove the cancer. Finally, radiation therapy also is used to relieve symptoms such as pain in those gallbladder cancers that are diagnosed at very advanced stages or where other treatment options have proved to be ineffective.
Chemotherapy: The use of chemotherapy often is used in combination with radiation therapy. A chemotherapy drug called 5-fluorouracil is often given at the same time as radiation to try to make both gallbladder cancer treatment options more effective. Other chemotherapy agents such as capecitabine, cisplatin, doxorubicin, gemcitabine or mitomycin also are commonly used to treat gallbladder cancer.

brain
Brain Cancer
It is estimated that around 22,000 new cases of brain or spinal cord cancer will be diagnosed this year. There are several brain cancer types, including: gliomas (astrocytomas, ependymomas, glioblastomas and oligodendrogliomas), which start in the glial cells of the brain; meningiomas, which begin in the layers of tissue that border the spinal cord and the outer section of the brain; medulloblastomas, which are fast-growing tumors that arise from neuroectodermal cells in the cerebellum; gangliogliomas, a type of brain tumor that contains both glial cells and neurons; and, Schwannomas, which arise from myelin-forming cells called Schwann cells.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: Called a craniotomy, is typically the first step to treat a brain tumor, but is dependent on its location and if it can be removed without harming other parts of the brain. General anesthesia is given as the patient must remain awake during the surgery.
- Radiation: External radiation therapy (intensity-modulated, proton beam or sterotactic) is given after a craniotomy or is used in patients who can not undergo surgery because of the location of the tumor. Internal radiation therapy typically is not used to treat brain cancer.
- Chemotherapy: Depending on the type of brain tumor, chemotherapy can be given intravenously, by mouth or through surgically-implanted wafers that contain chemotherapy.
- Targeted: A targeted therapy called Avastin can be used to shrink certain brain tumors with less severe side effects than chemotherapy. This drug, given intravenously, works by preventing the growth of blood vessels needed for a tumor to grow.

childhood
Childhood Cancer
Each year approximately 10,400 children in the United States are diagnosed with cancer . The three most common type of cancer diagnosed in children includes brain, central nervous system and leukemia. In fact, leukemias make up about one-third of all childhood cancers, with the most common subtype affecting children being acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Other cancers that affect children include gliomas, lymphomas, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, sarcomas and Wilms tumor 1.

Treatment largely depends on the type of cancer and stage of the cancer at diagnosis, but may include one or more of the following treatment options:
- Surgery: The type of surgery performed to treat the childhood cancer will depend on the specific type of cancer as well as the size of the tumor.
- Radiation: use of high-energy rays to kill the cancerous cells. It can be given externally, meaning the radiation stems from a large machine, or internally, where the radiation is placed directly into the body in the area of the tumor. Radiation is usually given to try to shrink the size of the tumor and/or to help alleviate pain associated with the cancer.
- Chemotherapy: Given intravenously and by pill, chemotherapy works to kill the rapidly dividing cancer cells. Since chemotherapy is not selective in killing just the cancer cells, it can cause several debilitating side effects including hair loss and nausea.
Targeted Therapy: are designed to attack or interfere with specific genes or cells that have been shown to help with the growth of certain cancers.
Bone Marrow or Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant: when high doses of chemotherapy or radiation are given to destroy bone marrow cells (where blood cells develop) and then are replaced with healthy stem cells, which form new blood cells, previously removed from the bone marrow or blood of the patient or a donor.

oral
Oral Cancer
Approximately 36,500 new cases of oral cavity and oropharynx cancers are expected to be diagnosed this year in the United States, with more of these cancers diagnosed in men than women.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: A common treatment for oral cancer is surgery to remove the tumor. Depending on the size of the tumor, part of the tongue, jaw, palate also may be removed, which may affect the ability to talk, swallow or chew. In these cases, reconstructive surgery may be necessary to help rebuild the areas that were removed.
Radiation: Given internally or externally, radiation therapy is an option for very small tumors or people who cannot tolerate surgery. It also can be used prior to surgery to try to shrink the tumor or used after to try to kill any remaining cancer cells in the surrounding area.
- Chemotherapy: for oral cancer is typically given at the same time as radiation therapy. It can cause pain and infection in the mouth and gums, resulting in dry mouth and/or changes in taste.
- Targeted Therapy: A drug called Erbitux also can be given in combination with radiation or chemotherapy. It belongs to a class of drugs known as targeted therapies because it is designed to bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cells that are found on the surface of oral cancer cells. Since it is a targeted therapy, it usually produces less side effects than chemotherapy.

stomach
Stomach Cancer
Stomach cancer is also called gastric cancer. There are approximately 21,000 new cases of stomach cancer diagnosed each year. This form of cancer typically occurs in people older than 65 years old and for some reason is seen slightly more often in men.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: Two types of surgery can be performed, which are dependent on where in the stomach the tumor is located. If the cancer is located in the upper part of the stomach a total gastrectomy is usually performed. In this procedure, the entire stomach is removed and then the esophagus is connected directly to the small intestine. A partial or subtotal gastroectomy is performed when the tumor is located in the lower part of the stomach. In this surgery, the lower part of the stomach is removed and the remaining part is reattached to the small intestine.
- Radiation: Using high energy rays to destroy cancer cells, radiation therapy given externally can be given after surgery to try to kill any remaining cancer cells. Radiation therapy is also often given in combination with chemotherapy to help prevent the recurrence of stomach cancer.
Chemotherapy: Typically more than one type of chemotherapy is given after surgery to help delay stomach cancer from returning. Studies are also ongoing to determine if giving chemotherapy prior to surgery, in order to shrink the tumor, also can help prevent the stomach cancer from recurring.

bone
Bone Cancer
Bone cancer affects about 2,300 people each year. There are three categories of bone cancer: 1) Osteosarcoma, a type of bone cancer that typically develops in the hard part of the bone in the upper arm or knee and is most common in children aged 10 to 19 years old. 2) Chrondrosarcoma, which forms in cartilage pads that align with joints at either end of bone, and usually are found in the shoulder, upper leg and pelvis. Chrondosarcomas mostly are diagnosed in adults over 40 years of age. 3) Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors, or commonly referred to as ESFTs, which start in bone but also may surface in blood vessels, fat or muscle surrounding bone, mainly in the legs, arms, pelvis and backbone.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
Surgery: The most common bone cancer treatment, a surgeon will remove the entire tumor found in the bone. Nowadays surgical procedures have made it possible for many patients to avoid amputation if the cancer is removed from the leg or arm. However, reconstructive surgery following the cancer removal may be necessary inn order to have full function of the particular limb affected.
Chemotherapy: A combination of different chemotherapy agents are used to treat osteosarcomas or ESFTs. It is not used to treat chondrosarcomas.
Radiation: Commonly used in combination with surgery, radiation therapy is the use of high energy rays to kill the cancer cells. It is often used to treat chondrosarcomas since chemotherapy cannot be used to treat these types of bone cancers. ESFTs are also treated with radiation therapy.
Cryosurgery: Cryosurgery, which is the use of liquid nitrogen to freeze and kill the cancer cells, may be used at times instead of traditional surgical procedures to remove the tumor.

lymphoma
Lymphoma
Lymphoma is a broad category of lymphatic cancers with two major subtypes: Hodgkin's lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

esophageal
Esophageal Cancer
Esophageal cancer is estimated that there will be approximately 16,000 new cases of esophageal cancer, a cancer that affects the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach, diagnosed this year. This type of cancer typically starts in the inner lining of the esophagus and grows outward toward the muscle layer. There are two main types of cancer of the esophagus: 1) Adenocarcinoma, the most common form of esophageal cancer in the US and usually found in the lower part of the esophagus near the stomach; 2) Squamous cell carcinoma, which is found in the upper section of the esophagus and is the most common form of esophageal cancer outside of the U.S.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
-Surgery: In most cases, an esophagectomy is performed, which is surgery that removes part of or all of the esophagus. Typically, lymph nodes surrounding the esophagus and part of the stomach also are removed. Once the esophagus is removed, a surgeon may reattach the top portion directly to the stomach or replace the area that was removed with a portion of the small or large intestine in helping eating and digesting as normal as possible.
- Radiation: External radiation is most often used to treat esophageal cancer. It may be used before or after surgery, as well as in combination with chemotherapy following surgery.
- Chemotherapy: Typically, chemotherapy is used in combination with radiation therapy before surgery to try to shrink the tumor, or after surgery.
- Clinical Trials: Since this type of cancer is hard to treat with current treatment options, patients may want to consider enrolling in a clinical trial that is evaluating the newest, cutting-edge esophageal cancer treatment options.

Nasopharyngeal
Nasopharyngeal Cancer
Cancer of the nasopharynx, the area of the head where air inhaled from the nose travels to the throat and lungs, is referred to as nasopharyngeal cancer. This form of cancer is very rare, accounting for about 2,000 new cases each year. Several types of cancer, including carcinomas, lymphomas, adenocarcinomas and adenoid cystic carcinomas can form in the nasopharynx. However, carcinomas of the nasopharynx are the most common type.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: to remove the cancer is not usually the first line treatment for this form of cancer since the location of the nasopharynx makes it difficult to operate on in order to remove the tumor. It usually is only appropriate for a small number of people affected by naropharynx cancer.
Radiation: radiation therapy, externally or internally, is typically the first form of treatment used for nasopharynx cancer since it does respond well to this form of therapy. It is commonly given in combination with chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy: Cisplatin is the most commonly used chemotherapy drug to treat nasopharynx cancer and is typically combined with radiation therapy. Other chemotherapies that may be used in combination with one another include: 5-fluorouracil, bleomycin, carboplatin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, epirubicin, gemcitabine, methrotrexate, oxaliplatin and paclitaxel.
Targeted Therapy: Erbitux, can be used as EGFR receptors found on cancer cells, is sometimes used to treat nasopharynx cancer in patients where the cancer has recurred following radiation and chemotherapy. It is often given at the same time as chemotherapy.

head neck
Head and Neck Cancer
These types of cancers include those of the oral cavity (lips, tongue, gums, inside lining of the mouth), the salivary glands (the area of the mouth that produces saliva that aids in swallowing), nasal cavity (including the sinuses), pharynx (a small tube that starts behind the nose and leads to the esophagus and trachea) and the larynx (referred to as the voice box). Approximately 39,000 new cases of head and neck cancer will be diagnosed in the United States this year and are more common in men and women over the age of 50.

Treatments can include one or more of the following:
- Surgery: A common treatment for head and neck cancer is surgery to remove the area where the cancer is detected. Depending on the size of the tumor, part of the tongue, jaw, pharynx and palate also may be removed, which may affect the ability to talk, swallow or chew. In these cases, reconstructive surgery may be necessary to help rebuild the areas that were removed.
Radiation:  Can be given internally or externally. It also can be used prior to surgery to try to shrink the tumor or used after to try to kill any remaining cancer cells in the surrounding area.
- Chemotherapy: is standard treatment option that can be given in combination with radiation therapy and/or after surgery. Because of the harsh nature of chemotherapy, it can cause pain and infection in the mouth and gums, resulting in dry mouth and/or changes in taste.
- Targeted Therapy: Erbitux can be given in combination with radiation or chemotherapy. It belongs to a class of drugs known as targeted therapies because it is designed to bind to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) cells that are found on the surface of cancer cells. Since it is a targeted therapy, it may have less side effects than chemotherapy.


List of Cancers

癌症名单

Bladder
Bone
Brain
Breast
Cervical
Childhood cancers
Endometrial
Esophageal
Eye
Gallbladder
Colon
Colorectal
Small intestine
Stomach
Head and Neck
Kidney
Leukemia
Liver
Lung
Lymphoma
Oral
Metastatic
Ovarian
Pancreatic
Parathyroid
Penile
Prostate
Rectal
Skin
Testicular
Thyroid
Vaginal
Vulvar

Herbs, Supplements & Vitamins

草药,保健品和维生素

Ananase
Comosain
Extranase
Formosalin
Inflamen
Traumanase
Comosain F-9a
Comosain F-9b
Comosain substrate Ba
Comosain substrate Bb
Comosain substrate 1-5